Mass Digitization

An estimated 100m or more books have been produced since Johann Gutenberg invented movable type in the 15th century. A large part of this vast literature is now being converted to digital books and moved into the world of electronic publishing.

A significant effort is being made by a number of universities and companies such as Google and (until recently) Microsoft to digitally capture the content of huge numbers of books. This mass digitization of the world’s literature is made possible by agreements made with major libraries around the world. Google reached a total of 1 million books scanned and digitized in early 2007. Digital publishing has to some degree replaced this effort where newly published books are concerned, but the vast body of literature was printed before 2010 when major publishers began to generate eBooks directly.

Google Book Search and Digitization of Books

Helping Google’s mass digitization of books are a number of important libraries. Initially a group five libraries agreed to help Google. These are the New York Public Library, the libraries of the Universities of Stanford, Harvard, and Michigan, and the world-renowned Bodleian Library (founded in 1602) at the University of Oxford. Each of these libraries agreed (in December 2004) to allow Google to undertake mass digitization projects and to make their stock of books available in a digital library via Google Book Search (books.google.com). The combined result of the mass digitization of these five library collections will a digital library containing about 30 million volumes.

The University of Virginia, a pioneer in digitizing public domain materials, has also joined the Google book digitization project, as has the University of California, the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries and the Wisconsin Historical Society Library. Google is conducting this mass digitization under the auspices of the Open Content Alliance (opencontentalliance.org).

Japan’s Keio University Library was the first Japanese partner (and the 26th library overall) to join Google’s mass digitalization of books effort, the Google Books Library Project. At least 120,000 public domain books from the Keio University collections will be digitized.

Digitization of Bavarian State Library Collection German and other European Language Books

A very large and significant European language library is being digitized in a partnership between Google and the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Bavarian State Library). German-readers will be able to access the library’s public domain works online through Google Book Search. The Bavarian State Library is one of Europe’s most important and renowned international research libraries. Its partnership with the Google Books Library Project will see more than a million out-of-copyright books being digitized. These range from well-loved German classics by the Brothers Grimm and Goethe to extensive collections previously only available to those able to consult the library’s stacks. In addition to German-language works, the library’s collection includes numerous out-of-copyright works in French, Spanish, Latin, Italian and English. Some of the works of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek date back to the very first moments of book printing and bear incredible cultural meaning.

Digitization of Libraries focused on Spanish Literature and Latin American History

Recently the University of Texas at Austin agreed to allow Google to mass digitize more than a million books in its libraries. Significantly, this includes the University of Texas’ world-renowned Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection which contains many important works from early Latin America history. Other spanish literature collections which Google is progressively including in Google Book Search include those of The National Library of Catalonia, University Complutense of Madrid, and the University of California.

British Library Online Project

In a separate deal, Microsoft has made arrangements with the British Library to mass digitize about 100,000 books. Microsoft scanned about 25 million pages from the British Library during 2006. In May 2008, Microsoft announced it was bringing to a close it’s book search project. To that date Microsoft said it had digitized 750,000 books and indexed 80 million journal articles. Microsoft said that Books and scholarly publications will continue to be integrated into Microsoft Search results, but not through separate indexes.

Universal Digital Library

The Universal Digital Library (UDL) is an initiative by Carnegie Mellon University and a number of UDL partners in China, India, and Egypt to mass digitize human knowledge by capturing all books in digital format and make them freely available over the internet. The Universal Digital Library has a particular focus on digitizing (and storing safely) rare and unique books from around the world. When and if there is a question about a book’s copyright only 15 percent of the book is published online – however the entire book is scanned and archived by the Universal Digital Library.

An initial goal for the Universal Digital Library was the Million Book Digital Library project. The project’s objective was to mass digitize over a million books to demonstrate the feasibility of the Universal Digital Library. This is less than 1% of all books in all languages ever published. (The total number of different titles indexed in OCLC’s WorldCat is about 48 million). The 1 million target was reached in April 2007. By the end of 2007 over 1.5 million books had been digitized. A secondary objective of the Million Book Digital Library project is to provide a test bed that will support other researchers who are working on improved scanning techniques, improved optical character recognition, and improved indexing.

Market Size for Online Book Publishing, Digital Publishing, and eBooks

Most efforts to achieve the mass digitization of libraries are focused on making knowledge and documents widely accessible – particularly where documents are of historic significance.

The commercial market opportunity for sales of digitized books, magazines, and newspapers has recently begun to expand dramatically. Hand-held devices such as Amazon’s Kindle and now the success of the Apple iPad, along with devices from Boarders’ kobo and Motorola Xoom, have made eBook-reading both practicable and pleasurable.

In June 2011, Apple reported that more than 130 million books had been downloaded from their Apple iBookstore (originally an App on iOS devices like the iPad, now part of iTunes), having signed-up major publishers including Harper Collins, Macmillan, Simon & Shuster, Hachette Book Group, Penguin, and Random House.

At present it seems that reading books on laptops and portable book readers is far less appealing to most people than the form factor which the world has used for centuries: printed books. That said, digital publishing is clearly a growing trend, and most print publications also have online editions.

While not the only factor involved, the preference for paper books is currently influencing the market size for online book publishing. Publisher Simon & Schuster reported that its sales of electronic books in 2007 were about $1 million (out of total annual sales of roughly $1 billion), though the company plans to double the size of its catalogue of eBooks during 2008. In 2005 digital copies of books generated sales of just US$12 million. That gave digital publishing a market share of under 0.5%: the book publishing industry achieved sales of US$25 billion in 2005, according to the Association of American Publishers.

Commentary on Mass Digitization of Books, including Copyright issues and legal challenges.

Webcast of conference on the effects of Mass Digitization of books on Libraries at the University of Michigan.

Great annual premium raises helped propel the legislation through Congress.

23, wellness insurers must file annual reviews that summarize what %age of customers’ premiums went to pay medical bills http://tadalafiluk.org/understanding-erectile-dysfunction.html . Health insurers who pay out significantly less than 80 percent of the premiums they gather from individuals who either purchase their own insurance or receive it from small employers will have to provide rebates next year. The largest changes could can be found in the market for folks and families who do not get health benefits through an employer.’ Great annual premium raises helped propel the legislation through Congress. ‘The real driver in medical health insurance premiums is usually health care spending, and Wisconsin has a competitive insurance market compared to some continuing states. Continue reading

Best diet: High proteins and low good carbs By Dr Ananya Mandal.

High-GI foods, like white breads and other food stuffs containing refined carbs, create a quick spike in blood sugar, while low GI foods, like wholegrain breads, result in a slower upsurge in blood glucose that lasts for an extended period of time. The scholarly study was published in the brand new England Journal of Medication. Dr. These households were randomly assigned to 1 of five different weight-maintenance diets for 26 weeks. None restricted calorie consumption, but four of the diet programs do dictate the proportion of proteins, fat and refined carbs which should make up daily diet. A combined group that ate without limitations served as control. Remaining groups were: low-protein, low-GI diet plan low-protein, high-GI diet plan high-protein and low-GI diet plan high-protein and high-GI diet plan The reduced protein groups consumed 13 % of calorie consumption as proteins; in the high-protein organizations, twenty five % of total energy consumed was proteins. Continue reading

When managing this patient.

Cataract vision disease and diabetes This series is aimed at helping the busy GP diagnose and manage patients with diabetes and its own complications. When managing this patient, what problems would you consider? During this time his diabetes control offers been moderate . He also offers well-controlled hypertension . Otherwise, John offers been well, retiring from the family farm only three years ago when he transferred to the local town. He hasn’t noted any transformation in his vision but is very concerned about losing his sight. Continue reading

Ascent of Anti Ageing treatments Being perfect.

Ascent of Anti Ageing treatments Being perfect, polished and poised is normally what everyone aspires penegra100mg.com/articles/mechanism-of-sildenafil-action.html . Manners, etiquette and better dressing can be learned and adapted. However, being truly a perfect version of you might not be possible atlanta divorce attorneys case. Being presentable isn’t complete with the designer clothes and fancy language skills just. The skin needs to reflect your well becoming. It is extremely obvious that people react to a balanced encounter more regularly .Besides good skin is a factor in boosting self confidence always. Continue reading

An Overview of DICOM Medical Imaging Data DICOM is the rising.

This provides patients and doctors with faster and clean image results and the ability to post procedure the image. Post digesting of the image allows the operator to control the pixel tones to correct picture density and zoom into the problem areas of the images as well as perform other procession features that you could end up improved analysis and fewer repeated examinations. A method of medical picture quantification data comprising up of, * Obtaining spatial transform info representing a correspondence between pointes in an initial non-transformed picture and corresponding factors in a second non-transformed image. * Store the spatial transform details in a computer memory space. * Identify a first image region in the first non-transformed image. Continue reading

Biologists show bioelectrical indicators control tumors due to cancer-causing genes cialisidanmark.com.

Biologists show bioelectrical indicators control tumors due to cancer-causing genes, fatty acid Developmental biologists at Tufts University, utilizing a tadpole model, show that bioelectrical signals from distant cells control the incidence of tumors due to cancer-causing genes and that process is influenced by degrees of a common fatty acid made by bacteria within the tadpole and in addition in humans. ‘Genetic info is often insufficient to determine whether a cell can be cancerous; you additionally have to take into consideration the physiology of the cell and the bioelectrical indicators it receives from additional tissues. This has large implications for diagnostic technology along with our basic knowledge of the part of genetics and physiology in oncology,’ stated Michael Levin, Ph cialisidanmark.com .D., Vannevar Bush Professor of Biology and corresponding writer of the paper in the journal Oncotarget that describes the study. Continue reading

As Swine Flu Spreads.

Unleashing a viral biological weapon in Mexico City is usually no great leap beyond what governments have previously done to attain their goals. Throughout history, virtually all the fantastic crimes against humanity have been carried out by governments – – mostly in the name of peace, security and prosperity, by the way. So let’s be very clear about one thing: Governments are certainly with the capacity of doing this if properly motivated. Let there be no relevant question about this. Will there be any hard evidence of laboratory origins?As of this brief moment, I have not personally seen any conclusive proof laboratory origins for this H1N1 swine flu. I am available to the possibility that new proof might emerge in this direction, however, and I am suspicious of the genetic makeup of the virus as you feasible indicator of its origins. Continue reading

A Journal of the American Medical Association.

Specifically, this article shows how medication pushing – not science – appears to have been the motivation behind a study that supposedly was tests the medication Neurontin , currently trusted to treat nerve pain. The check was allegedly designed to document how various dosages could treat epilepsy. But it turns out the trial was create to ‘seed’ the outcomes to be able to sell the drug, much like a cards shark might stack a deck of cards to be able to cheat at a game of poker. Continue reading

Senators Richard Blumenthal and Bob Corker released the Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now Act.

A major US legislative effort aimed at kickstarting the advancement of brand-new antimicrobial agents and combating drug-resistant infections is one step nearer to becoming law. Today Earlier, Senators Richard Blumenthal and Bob Corker released the Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now Act, a companion to a similar bill brought forward inside your home of Representatives in June sildenafil-citrate-online.html . Not really everyone agrees. Continue reading

Boxing Equipment.

Known reasons for our irregularities are many, nevertheless the most significant among all is normally that we seldom have sufficient time to visit gym and spend even more time on workout. If the fitness center would have experienced your home or at a location nearer to your dwelling then probably you should have been a regular. If you too think the same after that it’s the right period that you take into account equipments like recumbent bicycles, boxing devices, rower machine, power tower and elliptical trainers to make your house gym. Biggest advantage of each one of these instruments is they are foldable and hence won’t occupy more space. Simply take them out when you wish to workout and place them back again after finishing your workout. Continue reading

S Association is recognizing Li Gan.

Alzheimer’s Association recognizes Li Gan with Inge Grundke-Iqbal Award for Alzheimer’s Research The Alzheimer's Association is recognizing Li Gan, Ph.D http://propeciauk.org/ways-to-treat-hair-loss,-naturally ., for publishing influential study on the biology of Alzheimer's disease with the Inge Grundke-Iqbal Award for Alzheimer's Study.C. Dr. Gan receives the award for a paper reporting on a report that found the proteins progranulin may protect against the accumulation of amyloid, among the hallmark brain changes of Alzheimer's disease, in mouse models of Alzheimer's. Continue reading

Refractory breast cancer sufferers.

Preliminary results are expected in Q4 2011. IN-MAY, the U.S Food and Medication Administration granted Fast Track designation to CDX-011 for the treating advanced, resistant or refractory GPNMB-expressing breast cancer.. Celldex commences CDX-011 Phase 2b trial in advanced breasts cancer patients expressing GPNMB Celldex Therapeutics, Inc. today announced that the 1st individual offers been treated in a randomized Stage 2b research of the business’s CDX-011 antibody medication conjugate in glycoprotein NMB expressing advanced, refractory breast cancer sufferers. Continue reading

According to a study reported in the November problem of Molecular Cancer Research.

Celebrex may 1 day be used to prevent and even treat breast tumors The anti-inflammatory medication Celebrex, or celecoxib, reduces tumor mass by encouraging cell death and discouraging both cell proliferation and the sprouting of new blood vessels that feed growing tumors, according to a study reported in the November problem of Molecular Cancer Research tratamiento-del-acne.html . The study, conducted by experts at the Mayo Clinic University of Medicine in Scottsdale, Ariz., suggests this drug one day might be used to avoid and even treat breast tumors. Celebrex, marketed by Pfizer Inc., is an associate of the general family of drugs that target the COX-2, an enzyme that plays a major role in arthritis pain and inflammation. Continue reading

In rural and remote control areas particularly.

The federal government will spend $281 million on Indigenous wellness in 2004-05. Financing for Indigenous wellness has a lot more than doubled in real conditions since 1996. The most typical eye complications for Indigenous Australians are refractive mistake , diabetic cataract and retinopathy. In some areas, trachoma remains a nagging problem. Earlier this month the federal government announced a fresh Medicare funded adult wellness look for all Indigenous Australians. This wellness check is designed for those aged between 15 and 54, every 24 months. The goal is to guarantee early intervention and medical diagnosis for treatable conditions, specifically chronic diseases, to boost the overall wellness of Indigenous Australians. Continue reading

Broken Arm Pictures Fractured forearm of both bones.

Broken Arm Pictures Fractured forearm of both bones . Photos thanks to Courtney Bethel, MD, and Anthony Dean, MD. Click to see larger image. Forearm fracture with multiple fragments Click to view larger image. Upper arm fracture after casting Click to view larger image. Forearm fracture after splint application Click to see larger image. Broken shoulder . Click to see larger image. X-rays Fracture of the forearm in a kid. Click to view larger image. Continue reading