Mass Digitization

An estimated 100m or more books have been produced since Johann Gutenberg invented movable type in the 15th century. A large part of this vast literature is now being converted to digital books and moved into the world of electronic publishing.

A significant effort is being made by a number of universities and companies such as Google and (until recently) Microsoft to digitally capture the content of huge numbers of books. This mass digitization of the world’s literature is made possible by agreements made with major libraries around the world. Google reached a total of 1 million books scanned and digitized in early 2007. Digital publishing has to some degree replaced this effort where newly published books are concerned, but the vast body of literature was printed before 2010 when major publishers began to generate eBooks directly.

Google Book Search and Digitization of Books

Helping Google’s mass digitization of books are a number of important libraries. Initially a group five libraries agreed to help Google. These are the New York Public Library, the libraries of the Universities of Stanford, Harvard, and Michigan, and the world-renowned Bodleian Library (founded in 1602) at the University of Oxford. Each of these libraries agreed (in December 2004) to allow Google to undertake mass digitization projects and to make their stock of books available in a digital library via Google Book Search (books.google.com). The combined result of the mass digitization of these five library collections will a digital library containing about 30 million volumes.

The University of Virginia, a pioneer in digitizing public domain materials, has also joined the Google book digitization project, as has the University of California, the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries and the Wisconsin Historical Society Library. Google is conducting this mass digitization under the auspices of the Open Content Alliance (opencontentalliance.org).

Japan’s Keio University Library was the first Japanese partner (and the 26th library overall) to join Google’s mass digitalization of books effort, the Google Books Library Project. At least 120,000 public domain books from the Keio University collections will be digitized.

Digitization of Bavarian State Library Collection German and other European Language Books

A very large and significant European language library is being digitized in a partnership between Google and the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Bavarian State Library). German-readers will be able to access the library’s public domain works online through Google Book Search. The Bavarian State Library is one of Europe’s most important and renowned international research libraries. Its partnership with the Google Books Library Project will see more than a million out-of-copyright books being digitized. These range from well-loved German classics by the Brothers Grimm and Goethe to extensive collections previously only available to those able to consult the library’s stacks. In addition to German-language works, the library’s collection includes numerous out-of-copyright works in French, Spanish, Latin, Italian and English. Some of the works of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek date back to the very first moments of book printing and bear incredible cultural meaning.

Digitization of Libraries focused on Spanish Literature and Latin American History

Recently the University of Texas at Austin agreed to allow Google to mass digitize more than a million books in its libraries. Significantly, this includes the University of Texas’ world-renowned Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection which contains many important works from early Latin America history. Other spanish literature collections which Google is progressively including in Google Book Search include those of The National Library of Catalonia, University Complutense of Madrid, and the University of California.

British Library Online Project

In a separate deal, Microsoft has made arrangements with the British Library to mass digitize about 100,000 books. Microsoft scanned about 25 million pages from the British Library during 2006. In May 2008, Microsoft announced it was bringing to a close it’s book search project. To that date Microsoft said it had digitized 750,000 books and indexed 80 million journal articles. Microsoft said that Books and scholarly publications will continue to be integrated into Microsoft Search results, but not through separate indexes.

Universal Digital Library

The Universal Digital Library (UDL) is an initiative by Carnegie Mellon University and a number of UDL partners in China, India, and Egypt to mass digitize human knowledge by capturing all books in digital format and make them freely available over the internet. The Universal Digital Library has a particular focus on digitizing (and storing safely) rare and unique books from around the world. When and if there is a question about a book’s copyright only 15 percent of the book is published online – however the entire book is scanned and archived by the Universal Digital Library.

An initial goal for the Universal Digital Library was the Million Book Digital Library project. The project’s objective was to mass digitize over a million books to demonstrate the feasibility of the Universal Digital Library. This is less than 1% of all books in all languages ever published. (The total number of different titles indexed in OCLC’s WorldCat is about 48 million). The 1 million target was reached in April 2007. By the end of 2007 over 1.5 million books had been digitized. A secondary objective of the Million Book Digital Library project is to provide a test bed that will support other researchers who are working on improved scanning techniques, improved optical character recognition, and improved indexing.

Market Size for Online Book Publishing, Digital Publishing, and eBooks

Most efforts to achieve the mass digitization of libraries are focused on making knowledge and documents widely accessible – particularly where documents are of historic significance.

The commercial market opportunity for sales of digitized books, magazines, and newspapers has recently begun to expand dramatically. Hand-held devices such as Amazon’s Kindle and now the success of the Apple iPad, along with devices from Boarders’ kobo and Motorola Xoom, have made eBook-reading both practicable and pleasurable.

In June 2011, Apple reported that more than 130 million books had been downloaded from their Apple iBookstore (originally an App on iOS devices like the iPad, now part of iTunes), having signed-up major publishers including Harper Collins, Macmillan, Simon & Shuster, Hachette Book Group, Penguin, and Random House.

At present it seems that reading books on laptops and portable book readers is far less appealing to most people than the form factor which the world has used for centuries: printed books. That said, digital publishing is clearly a growing trend, and most print publications also have online editions.

While not the only factor involved, the preference for paper books is currently influencing the market size for online book publishing. Publisher Simon & Schuster reported that its sales of electronic books in 2007 were about $1 million (out of total annual sales of roughly $1 billion), though the company plans to double the size of its catalogue of eBooks during 2008. In 2005 digital copies of books generated sales of just US$12 million. That gave digital publishing a market share of under 0.5%: the book publishing industry achieved sales of US$25 billion in 2005, according to the Association of American Publishers.

Commentary on Mass Digitization of Books, including Copyright issues and legal challenges.

Webcast of conference on the effects of Mass Digitization of books on Libraries at the University of Michigan.

Can someone really eat the right path to happiness?

And that’s the distinction that matters here: When I talk about happiness, I’m talking about sustainable happiness, not a brief moment of spurious excitement that reverses itself and leads to depression quickly. You see, many people try to eat their method to happiness by consuming the instant pleasure foods like ice cream, donuts, cookies and yes, even twinkies. Sugar can, indeed, make us momentarily uplifted because this refined molecule temporarily boosts blood glucose and actively alters human brain chemistry. But like any drug, the depression after it wears off is definitely far worse compared to the brief pleasure it appeared to give us. Continue reading

The proteins long-recognized intended for predicting ovarian cancer recurrence.

CA-125: Screening tool to detect ovarian cancer in early stages Evaluating its change as time passes, CA-125, the proteins long-recognized intended for predicting ovarian cancer recurrence, shows promise since a screening tool designed for early-stage disease now, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Malignancy Center. The updated results are published in Cancer; preliminary data were initial presented at the 2010 American Culture of Clinical Oncology annual meeting http://tadalafil-italia.net/cialis-generico-vs-cialis-di-marca/ . If a more substantial study shows survival advantage, the simple blood test can offer a much-required screening tool to detect ovarian cancers in its first stages – actually in the most aggressive forms – -in post-menopausal women at ordinary risk for the condition. Continue reading

Stroke and various other serious cardiovascular illnesses.

The study particularly focused on the consequences of proton pump inhibitors omeprazole , esomeprazole , pantoprazole , and lansoprazole , which together accounted for about 96 percent of PPI use in the analysis. Patients who receive a drug-eluting stent reap the benefits of taking anti-clotting medications, including thienopyradines and aspirin, for at least twelve months following procedure. Doctors frequently also prescribe PPIs to patients taking clopidogrel due to pre-existing abdomen disease or even to reduce the threat of common side results such as nausea and gastroesophageal reflux . Continue reading

Boston Therapeutics initiates PAZ320 medical trial in Type 2 Diabetes Boston Therapeutics.

.. Boston Therapeutics initiates PAZ320 medical trial in Type 2 Diabetes Boston Therapeutics, Inc., a public organization authorized with the SEC and a programmer of diabetes therapeutics, announced today the initiation of it is first scientific trial to judge the Protection and Efficacy of PAZ320 when put into oral brokers or Insulin routine in Sufferers with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. We’ve already seen significant reduced amount of post-food elevation of glucose in preclinical versions with PAZ320, stated David Platt, Ph.D., CEO of Boston Therapeutics. Continue reading

Australian research really helps to better understand asthma.

QIMR provides commenced genetic research on a assortment of 500 households with asthma. This year Later, scientists shall start assessment the over 2000 bloodstream samples. Related StoriesSMU and University of Maryland experts awarded NIH grant to fight pediatric asthmaStudy: Wildfire smoke cigarettes exposure connected with increased appointments to ER for asthmaResearchers evaluate effectiveness of mixture therapy for black sufferers with asthma ‘We are looking at a fresh gene that people suspect to become a risk factor, predicated on our earlier function in these grouped families. We may also test a great many other genes lately reported in overseas research to be engaged in asthma risk, such as for example HF11, ADAM33 and CTLA4,’ stated QIMR genetic epidemiologist, Dr David Duffy. Continue reading

Or the deliberate spraying of our skies with small particulate matter.

Cloud brightening geoengineering suggested simply by scientists to combat global warming So-called chemtrail technology, or the deliberate spraying of our skies with small particulate matter, is outlined in a fresh scientific study as a possible way to greatly help reflect sunlight back into space and prevent global warming. Researchers from the University of Manchester state they’ve develop an energy-efficient method to create even more and denser clouds, that they say will block organic sunlight from achieving the earth’s surface and promote a cooling impact, or so the theory goes. Published in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, the study explains how blasting the skies with tiny salt particles could increase the albedo of clouds, or the amount of sunlight they reflect back into space http://www.levardenafil.com/viagra-cialis-ou-levitra.htm . Since clouds currently form when tiny particles in the sky gather water droplets naturally, scientists believe they are able to add more particles to create new clouds even. This process, as referred to in the paper, sounds exactly like what many are already observing in the skies today. The marine cloud brightening method involves using large numbers of ships to spray nebulized ocean water into increasing surroundings below a marine boundary coating cloud, reads the scholarly study. The resulting improved cloud condensation nucleus concentrations mean that cloud droplet concentrations are increased, which includes been hypothesized to result in clouds that are even more reflective and more durable. Chemtrails aren’t a conspiracy theory; they’re a fact! Although paper describes ships as the selected vehicles for spraying these salt particles in to the sky, airplanes are the much more likely mode of transfer. Chemtrail streamers from airplanes have, in fact, already been noticed by people all over the world dating back to the early 1990s. U.S. Government papers dating back to the 1950s, contrary to popular belief, outline the living of weather modification programs that include things like cloud seeding, suggesting that the proposed cloud whitening technique is actually nothing new. In the last twenty years experiments have already been conducted on weather modification, particularly on the effects of seeding clouds with such nutrients as silver iodide crystals, admits a NASA report that was published in 1966. [A] number of government agencies have already been developing plans for research and eventually operational programs in climate and environment modification, it adds, noting that scientists had already developed a genuine way to improve precipitation by up to 20 %, along with reduce incidences of lightning. You can browse the full shocking statement, entitled A Suggested National Program in Weather Modification, here: GeoengineeringWatch.org. As you will notice clearly, the idea of spreading particles throughout the atmosphere to alter weather patterns is hardly some harebrained conspiracy theory. Based on the admissions manufactured in this 1966 survey, in addition to new studies such as this latest one out from the UK, it is clear that weather modification is certainly a conspiracy fact that the general public must finally acknowledge. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering has been taking place for years The most obvious assumption in this latest paper is definitely that aerosol spraying hasn’t yet begun but is becoming proposed as a potential option. But considerable evidence implies that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is taking place – – and offers been for several years already. There exists a mountain of scientific data to confirm the reality of ‘global dimming,’ clarifies the chemtrail resource Geoengineering View. Atmospheric aerosol saturation significantly [impacts] wind patterns and diminishes precipitation general leading to droughts of unprecedented scope and scale. Loss of [photosynthesis], destruction of the ozone layer, reduction in global rainfall, lack of blue sky, toxification of waters and soils, these are only a few of the known outcomes of the global atmospheric spraying. To learn more, visit: GeoengineeringWatch.org. Continue reading

Seen as a severe muscles weakness.

Guptill may also create a multi-middle analysis network of MG centers to build up a repository of MG bloodstream samples for make use of in future studies. This network of repositories can not only advantage the MG community, but could possibly be used for learning other autoimmune illnesses, creating a ripple impact to improving remedies in other areas.. Better treatment could possibly be coming for Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia Gravis is a debilitating and potentially deadly disease that may afflict anyone, seen as a severe muscles weakness, affecting control of face expressions, leg and arm movements, chewing, swallowing, breathing and coughing. Continue reading

Thompson provides announced the awarding of a agreement to Aventis Pasteur Inc.

Aventis Pasteur to produce and shop 2 million dosages of avian influenza H5N1 vaccine HHS Secretary Tommy G. Thompson provides announced the awarding of a agreement to Aventis Pasteur Inc cialis ohne rezept . To manufacture and shop 2 million dosages of avian influenza H5N1 vaccine, a significant initial acquisition to raised prepare the country for an influenza pandemic. The vaccine that’s being made is made to match the H5N1 influenza virus which has killed 29 people in Thailand and Vietnam this season. If a pandemic of avian influenza virus H5N1 occurred in human beings, the new vaccine will be used to safeguard laboratory workers, public wellness staff, and, if needed, everyone. Continue reading

Cleansing for a healthy pregnancy Pregnancy is the most important amount of time in a womans life.

In order to investigate reviews that some patients were not responding to treatment intended to prevent heart episodes or strokes caused by blood clots, Dr. Co-workers and Serebruany at the University of Kentucky in Lexington; Duke Clinical Analysis Institute in Durham, NEW YORK; and the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio analyzed data that they had gathered over more than seven years during a variety of studies of clopidogrel. Serebruany said. The data included the full total results of blood testing that measured how blood platelets aggregated, or clumped together, following treatment with clopidogrel. The analysis subjects were 94 healthy volunteers, 405 individuals treated after coronary stenting, 25 patients with heart failure, and 20 sufferers treated after strokes. Continue reading

Metal-based catalysts that are currently in wide use by the drug viagra köpa.

Chemistry team discovers environmentally-friendly iron-based nanoparticle catalysts A chemistry team at the University of Toronto has discovered environmentally-friendly iron-based nanoparticle catalysts that work and also the expensive, toxic, metal-based catalysts that are currently in wide use by the drug, fragrance and food industry. It will always be important to strive to make commercial syntheses even more green, and using iron catalysts isn’t just much less toxic, but it is much less expensive also, stated Jessica Sonnenberg, a PhD college student and lead writer of a paper published this week in the Journal of the American Chemical substance Society viagra köpa . Continue reading

Breast Infection Surgery If an abscess exists.

After injection of regional anesthetic, the physician may drain an abscess close to the surface of your skin either by aspiration with a needle and syringe or with a small incision. If the abscess is definitely deep in the breasts, however, it could require surgical drainage in the operating room. This procedure is normally performed under general anesthesia to reduce pain and totally drain the abscess. Antibiotics and temperature on the region are also used to take care of abscesses.. Breast Infection Surgery If an abscess exists, it should be drained. Continue reading

According to a Henry Ford Hospital study.

As the anti-fungal agent stays in the mouth, it offers the same relief while the orally administered medication but with couple of or no relative unwanted effects.’ Dr. Vazquez says medication used orally or by injection often is absorbed into other areas of the body, causing side effects for patients such as for example nausea thus, vomiting, diarrhea and liver dysfunction. The study compared the efficiency and safety of acquiring 50 milligrams of a miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet once-daily to 10 milligrams of clotrimazole, a common anti-fungal pill five times a full day. Continue reading

San Diego School of Medicine avanafil100mg.net.

Clinical trial of stem cell-derived therapy for individuals with Type 1 diabetes Researchers in the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, in partnership with ViaCyte, Inc avanafil100mg.net ., a San Diego-based biotechnology firm specializing in regenerative medicine, have launched the first-ever human Stage I/II clinical trial of a stem cell-derived therapy for individuals with Type 1 diabetes. The trial will assess the efficacy and basic safety of a fresh investigational drug called VC-01, which was approved for testing by the U recently.S. Continue reading

The businesss third-generation drug-eluting stent technology.

In Japan, the business expects authorization for the TAXUS Component Stent System in past due 2011 or early 2012 and for the PROMUS Component Stent Program in mid 2012. In the U.S., the TAXUS Component Stent and the PROMUS Component Stent are investigational products and are tied to applicable legislation to investigational only use and are unavailable for sale.. BSX receives CE Tag approval for TAXUS Component Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stent System – Approval Includes Particular Indication for Treatment of DIABETICS Boston Scientific Company today announced it provides received CE Tag approval because of its TAXUS Component Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stent Program, the business’s third-generation drug-eluting stent technology. Continue reading

The toolkit offers been made by AfrOx.

Better recognition of increasing burden of cancers in Africa needed Cancer kills a lot more than seven million people a calendar year throughout the world. The toolkit offers been made by AfrOx, alongside the African Organisation for Study and Training in Cancers , the European Culture for Medical Oncology and the Union for International Malignancy Control http://viagradanmark.org . The target is to encourage tumor advocates to be vocal at the political level, pressing for improvements in cancers health promotion, early recognition, care and attention and treatment in Africa by raising recognition among government leaders, opinion makers, wellness policymakers and everyone, to ensure that sustainable and inexpensive measures to tackle cancers could be put in place. Continue reading