Mass Digitization

An estimated 100m or more books have been produced since Johann Gutenberg invented movable type in the 15th century. A large part of this vast literature is now being converted to digital books and moved into the world of electronic publishing.

A significant effort is being made by a number of universities and companies such as Google and (until recently) Microsoft to digitally capture the content of huge numbers of books. This mass digitization of the world’s literature is made possible by agreements made with major libraries around the world. Google reached a total of 1 million books scanned and digitized in early 2007. Digital publishing has to some degree replaced this effort where newly published books are concerned, but the vast body of literature was printed before 2010 when major publishers began to generate eBooks directly.

Google Book Search and Digitization of Books

Helping Google’s mass digitization of books are a number of important libraries. Initially a group five libraries agreed to help Google. These are the New York Public Library, the libraries of the Universities of Stanford, Harvard, and Michigan, and the world-renowned Bodleian Library (founded in 1602) at the University of Oxford. Each of these libraries agreed (in December 2004) to allow Google to undertake mass digitization projects and to make their stock of books available in a digital library via Google Book Search (books.google.com). The combined result of the mass digitization of these five library collections will a digital library containing about 30 million volumes.

The University of Virginia, a pioneer in digitizing public domain materials, has also joined the Google book digitization project, as has the University of California, the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries and the Wisconsin Historical Society Library. Google is conducting this mass digitization under the auspices of the Open Content Alliance (opencontentalliance.org).

Japan’s Keio University Library was the first Japanese partner (and the 26th library overall) to join Google’s mass digitalization of books effort, the Google Books Library Project. At least 120,000 public domain books from the Keio University collections will be digitized.

Digitization of Bavarian State Library Collection German and other European Language Books

A very large and significant European language library is being digitized in a partnership between Google and the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Bavarian State Library). German-readers will be able to access the library’s public domain works online through Google Book Search. The Bavarian State Library is one of Europe’s most important and renowned international research libraries. Its partnership with the Google Books Library Project will see more than a million out-of-copyright books being digitized. These range from well-loved German classics by the Brothers Grimm and Goethe to extensive collections previously only available to those able to consult the library’s stacks. In addition to German-language works, the library’s collection includes numerous out-of-copyright works in French, Spanish, Latin, Italian and English. Some of the works of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek date back to the very first moments of book printing and bear incredible cultural meaning.

Digitization of Libraries focused on Spanish Literature and Latin American History

Recently the University of Texas at Austin agreed to allow Google to mass digitize more than a million books in its libraries. Significantly, this includes the University of Texas’ world-renowned Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection which contains many important works from early Latin America history. Other spanish literature collections which Google is progressively including in Google Book Search include those of The National Library of Catalonia, University Complutense of Madrid, and the University of California.

British Library Online Project

In a separate deal, Microsoft has made arrangements with the British Library to mass digitize about 100,000 books. Microsoft scanned about 25 million pages from the British Library during 2006. In May 2008, Microsoft announced it was bringing to a close it’s book search project. To that date Microsoft said it had digitized 750,000 books and indexed 80 million journal articles. Microsoft said that Books and scholarly publications will continue to be integrated into Microsoft Search results, but not through separate indexes.

Universal Digital Library

The Universal Digital Library (UDL) is an initiative by Carnegie Mellon University and a number of UDL partners in China, India, and Egypt to mass digitize human knowledge by capturing all books in digital format and make them freely available over the internet. The Universal Digital Library has a particular focus on digitizing (and storing safely) rare and unique books from around the world. When and if there is a question about a book’s copyright only 15 percent of the book is published online – however the entire book is scanned and archived by the Universal Digital Library.

An initial goal for the Universal Digital Library was the Million Book Digital Library project. The project’s objective was to mass digitize over a million books to demonstrate the feasibility of the Universal Digital Library. This is less than 1% of all books in all languages ever published. (The total number of different titles indexed in OCLC’s WorldCat is about 48 million). The 1 million target was reached in April 2007. By the end of 2007 over 1.5 million books had been digitized. A secondary objective of the Million Book Digital Library project is to provide a test bed that will support other researchers who are working on improved scanning techniques, improved optical character recognition, and improved indexing.

Market Size for Online Book Publishing, Digital Publishing, and eBooks

Most efforts to achieve the mass digitization of libraries are focused on making knowledge and documents widely accessible – particularly where documents are of historic significance.

The commercial market opportunity for sales of digitized books, magazines, and newspapers has recently begun to expand dramatically. Hand-held devices such as Amazon’s Kindle and now the success of the Apple iPad, along with devices from Boarders’ kobo and Motorola Xoom, have made eBook-reading both practicable and pleasurable.

In June 2011, Apple reported that more than 130 million books had been downloaded from their Apple iBookstore (originally an App on iOS devices like the iPad, now part of iTunes), having signed-up major publishers including Harper Collins, Macmillan, Simon & Shuster, Hachette Book Group, Penguin, and Random House.

At present it seems that reading books on laptops and portable book readers is far less appealing to most people than the form factor which the world has used for centuries: printed books. That said, digital publishing is clearly a growing trend, and most print publications also have online editions.

While not the only factor involved, the preference for paper books is currently influencing the market size for online book publishing. Publisher Simon & Schuster reported that its sales of electronic books in 2007 were about $1 million (out of total annual sales of roughly $1 billion), though the company plans to double the size of its catalogue of eBooks during 2008. In 2005 digital copies of books generated sales of just US$12 million. That gave digital publishing a market share of under 0.5%: the book publishing industry achieved sales of US$25 billion in 2005, according to the Association of American Publishers.

Commentary on Mass Digitization of Books, including Copyright issues and legal challenges.

Webcast of conference on the effects of Mass Digitization of books on Libraries at the University of Michigan.

Acute liver failure takes place when cells in the liver die quickly.

Antidotes effective for treating acute liver failing patients in early stages of disease The antidote for acute liver failure caused by acetaminophen poisoning also can treat acute liver failure because of almost every other causes if given before severe injury occurs, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers and their colleagues at 21 various other institutions have found. Acute liver failure takes place when cells in the liver die quickly, resulting in toxins being released into the bloodstream and brain nizagara information . Continue reading

Childrens Motrin causes seven-year-old to go blind and lose 90 % of skin A Plymouth.

Currently, the medication’s label includes an FDA-recommended warning that the medication might lead to ‘a severe allergic reaction’ and that symptoms could consist of hives, facial swelling, rash, and blisters. Only about 300 cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome happen in the U.S. Annually.. Children’s Motrin causes seven-year-old to go blind and lose 90 % of skin A Plymouth, Mass., teen could be awarded as much as $109 million after losing the majority of her pores and skin and her vision carrying out a massive allergic reaction to Children’s Motrin when she was seven years aged. The award against the over-the-counter drug’s manufacturer, Johnson & Johnson, was granted to Samantha Reckis and her family members, reports said, after she experienced a uncommon but potentially fatal side effect from taking the ibuprofen product that caused her to proceed blind and also have 90 % of her epidermis fall off. Continue reading

Experts at the University of Uk Columbia have turned it right into a protein creation factory.

Or, by keeping the S-layer proteins intact and inserting brand-new things within it genetically, they create a very dense screen of useful proteins on the cell surface area and expect to utilize the whole bacterium in a therapeutic software. Related StoriesEGPAF, EJAF start new project to broaden HIV treatment, prevention initiatives for adolescents in AfricaGenvoya authorized as complete routine for HIV treatmentNew initiative released to accelerate seek out effective HIV vaccineBacteria are generally utilized in biotechnology to create useful protein products. If the bacterias secrete the proteins than keep it included within the cell rather, purification costs are significantly lowered. The researchers are suffering from a commercially available package predicated on this technology, which could be specifically useful in developing countries as it can be utilized to manufacture HIV-blocking brokers extremely cheaply and with small specialist experience. Continue reading

Hong Lu and her group www.viagradanmark.eu.

Apparent diffusion coefficient does not reflect cytotoxicedema on uninjured side after TBI It really is currently difficult to treat traumatic brain injury in the clinic. There are abundant neural network connections and humoral regulation mechanisms between your cerebral hemispheres. Hong Lu and her group, Affiliated Haikou Hospital, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, in China performed a study to investigate whether obvious diffusion coefficient measurements can reflect cytotoxic edema on the uninjured aspect using diffusion tensor imaging www.viagradanmark.eu . They discovered that, on the wounded side, vasogenic edema followed by intracellular edema made an appearance; on the uninjured side, the pathological changes take place later, cytotoxic edema followed by vasogenic edema was visible, but vasogenic edema tended to diminish with time. Continue reading

Cold Hands & Feet Causes Humans are tropical animals.

If the physical body can be cooling off, circulation decreases in the arms, legs, ears, and nasal area so that the rest of the primary body can stay warm. When temps are below freezing, ice may form in these areas with less circulation. Nonfreezing cold accidents are also due to cooling of the skin. In immersion injuries, the bloodstream and nerves vessels are damaged after exposure to cold, wet conditions at or above freezing temps. Pernio is caused by exposure to cold for an extended period of time without freezing or by extremely wet conditions. Raynaud’s phenomenon is an abnormal narrowing of the arteries that constrict with cooling of the fingertips or toes. Cryoglobulins are proteins, which are normally dissolved in the blood, that become solids or gels when cold. Continue reading

The CODIS data source is the worlds largest.

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Platinum chromium stent systems and transcatheter aortic valve alternative.

If the proteinase is normally prevented from functioning, the virus disease is aborted. Previous studies have revealed that the proteinase is definitely inactive when by means of single molecules. But once two of those molecules bind together to make what’s called a dimer, the enzyme becomes active and can play its role in SARS virus reproduction. The challenge for researchers, and the focus of the Brookhaven study, was to look for the concentration at which individual proteinase molecules form active dimers. Continue reading

Can Microwaved Popcorn Ruin Your Lungs?

Cecile Rose. ‘However, we’ve no other plausible explanation.’ The July letter, made public Tuesday by a general public health policy blog, refers to a potentially fatal disease frequently called snacks lung that is the main topic of lawsuits by a huge selection of workers at meals factories exposed to chemicals used for flavoring. In response to Rose’s obtaining, the Taste and Extract Producers Association issued a statement Tuesday recommending that its people reduce ‘to the level possible’ the quantity of diacetyl in butter flavorings they make. It observed that diacetyl is approved for use in flavors by the federal Meals and Drug Administration. Continue reading

JCUs Infectious Illnesses and Immunopathogenesis Analysis Group.

Australian scientists tackle deadly Q fever Scientists at James Make University took the lead in creating a new vaccine against an extremely infectious cattleyard disease the effect of a bacteria which includes the potential to end up being developed while a bioterrorist weapon www.tadapox.biz . JCU’s Infectious Illnesses and Immunopathogenesis Analysis Group, within the institution of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, has secured a $300,000 grant from the Defence, Technology and Technology Organisation in Melbourne to carry out analysis into Q fever over 3 years. Analysis associate Ray Layton is definitely one of a little team of scientists focusing on the groundbreaking task at JCU. ‘The military are very thinking about this study because Coxiella burnetii, the species of bacterias which in turn causes Q fever, can be resistant to heat, drying and several disinfectants so it may survive for a long period. It could become airbourne rapidly and is therefore extremely infectious,’ Mr Layton said. ‘The options for this to be created as a Course 2 bioterrorist weapon is there. It is on more information on agents that could turn into a risk with a whole lot of work. Our research can look at creating a vaccine which you can use to safeguard us against such a advancement. ‘The very last thing the Army are able is for a huge selection of soldiers to end up being out of actions because they have experienced an adverse a reaction to a vaccine.’ Mr Layton stated that Q fever was mainly an occupational hazard for employees from the meats and livestock sectors. It is within the milk, urine, faeces and, more significantly, the amniotic liquids and placenta of contaminated cattle, goats and sheep. Infection in humans generally takes place through inhalation of airbourne organisms in barnyard dirt and can bring about high fever, muscle discomfort, confusion, diarrhoea and vomiting. Chronic Q fever can result in endocarditis, an an infection of 1 of the four center valves, and can become fatal. Related StoriesResearch provides prospects for fresh ways of develop HIV vaccineGHIT Fund invests $10.7 million to battle malaria, TB, leishmaniasis and dengueResearchers use leading edge genomic solutions to explain protective ramifications of malaria vaccine candidate’It’s the first-time the University has viewed Q fever,’ Mr Layton stated. ‘It’s a significant coup since it means we have been not just collaborating with all the current additional Q fever research organizations in Australia but we have been cemented at the forefront of this research due to our molecular biology abilities and understanding.’ The JCU group can be the only real Q fever research group in Australia to possess a Physical Containment 3 laboratory, which enables researchers to work with extremely infectious organisms in a protected environment. Having such a service has helped type collaborative links with groupings in Melbourne, Perth, Darwin and Brisbane. The group’s principal investigator, Brenda Govan, stated the existing Q fever vaccine was definately not perfect. It can’t be administered to those under 15 and it could be devastating to the ones that can possess it. Those who have adverse reactions, most because an allergy is experienced by them to the poultry egg antigens found in the vaccine, will get an abscess at the idea of injection, develop swollen joints and be feverish. ‘What we have been looking at is creating a brand-new vaccine where, rather than getting injected with egg antigens and killed Coxiella burnetii, people will simply become injected with the cloned proteins in charge of creating an immune response against the bacterias,’ she said. ‘This will mean forget about nasty unwanted effects.’ Based on the Queensland Government there’s typically 229 reported situations of Q fever in the condition every year. The name hails from the word ‘query’ fever that was applied to the condition when it had been first observed in abattoir employees in Australia in 1933. Continue reading

Entocort comes in over 40 countries currently.

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Especially those latently infected with TB.

Clinical testing extended for vaccine against latent TB Statens Serum Institut and Aeras today announced the initiation of a Stage We/IIa clinical trial for a candidate tuberculosis vaccine made to protect people, especially those latently infected with TB, from developing active TB disease. Your choice builds on the outcome of a Stage I research that raised no security concerns and demonstrated immunogenicity from the first medical trial of the vaccine candidate, SSI H56:IC31/AERAS-456, developed with Valneva's IC31 – proprietary adjuvant. ‘With the outcomes of our first research in hand, we can now test SSI H56:IC31/AERAS-456 for safety in a more substantial group of people, while looking for safety, the correct dose, and the needed immune responses that would lead us in to the following phase,’ stated Thomas G. Continue reading

Australian scientists receive grants for research in cancer.

Australian scientists receive grants for research in cancer, rheumatoid and malaria arthritis Scientists in the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute in Melbourne, Australia, have received a lot more than $16 million in Australian Federal government funding to pursue analysis into cancer, malaria, arthritis rheumatoid and the disease fighting capability, today it was announced la información principal . The financing was announced by federal government wellness minister Tanya Plibersek and you will be distributed through the National Health insurance and Medical Analysis Council. Continue reading

It just might be.

Anti-cancers fungus found to eat away plastic waste What if it had been possible to eliminate a lot of the world’s otherwise very-slowly-biodegrading plastic waste using a organic Amazonian fungus? Well, it just might be, thanks to research conducted by Jonathan Russell and co-workers from Yale University’s Division of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, who recently found that Pestalotiopsis microspora effectively eats apart polyurethane plastics, and is capable of using plastic as its sole food supply in both anaerobic and aerobic environments. Entitled Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi, the analysis aimed to find fresh potential plant resources of bioremediation, also known as the usage of microorganisms to biodegrade and eliminate pollutants that normally persist in the environment kjøp cialis . Continue reading

Mobius Imaging announce CE Tag approval for Airo Mobile phone Intraoperative CT Brainlab.

The portable scanner provides reproducible high-resolution images, because of its included O.R. Desk column by 32-slice and TRUMPF helical scan detector array. Airo boasts the biggest gantry opening available, financing itself to cranial especially, trauma and spine procedures.R. Receiving CE Mark acceptance for our flagship item, Airo, is a substantial milestone for Mobius Imaging, stated Gene Gregerson, CEO of Mobius Imaging. We are pleased with the extensive analysis and usability placed into Airo that led to a Crimson Dot award-winning product style. Airo provides been showcased at many European congresses and clients are excited to really have the possibility to bring the item's advantages to their patients. Continue reading

There are numerous criteria that must be met while choosing products for this type or kind of skin.

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