Mass Digitization

An estimated 100m or more books have been produced since Johann Gutenberg invented movable type in the 15th century. A large part of this vast literature is now being converted to digital books and moved into the world of electronic publishing.

A significant effort is being made by a number of universities and companies such as Google and (until recently) Microsoft to digitally capture the content of huge numbers of books. This mass digitization of the world’s literature is made possible by agreements made with major libraries around the world. Google reached a total of 1 million books scanned and digitized in early 2007. Digital publishing has to some degree replaced this effort where newly published books are concerned, but the vast body of literature was printed before 2010 when major publishers began to generate eBooks directly.

Google Book Search and Digitization of Books

Helping Google’s mass digitization of books are a number of important libraries. Initially a group five libraries agreed to help Google. These are the New York Public Library, the libraries of the Universities of Stanford, Harvard, and Michigan, and the world-renowned Bodleian Library (founded in 1602) at the University of Oxford. Each of these libraries agreed (in December 2004) to allow Google to undertake mass digitization projects and to make their stock of books available in a digital library via Google Book Search ( The combined result of the mass digitization of these five library collections will a digital library containing about 30 million volumes.

The University of Virginia, a pioneer in digitizing public domain materials, has also joined the Google book digitization project, as has the University of California, the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries and the Wisconsin Historical Society Library. Google is conducting this mass digitization under the auspices of the Open Content Alliance (

Japan’s Keio University Library was the first Japanese partner (and the 26th library overall) to join Google’s mass digitalization of books effort, the Google Books Library Project. At least 120,000 public domain books from the Keio University collections will be digitized.

Digitization of Bavarian State Library Collection German and other European Language Books

A very large and significant European language library is being digitized in a partnership between Google and the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Bavarian State Library). German-readers will be able to access the library’s public domain works online through Google Book Search. The Bavarian State Library is one of Europe’s most important and renowned international research libraries. Its partnership with the Google Books Library Project will see more than a million out-of-copyright books being digitized. These range from well-loved German classics by the Brothers Grimm and Goethe to extensive collections previously only available to those able to consult the library’s stacks. In addition to German-language works, the library’s collection includes numerous out-of-copyright works in French, Spanish, Latin, Italian and English. Some of the works of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek date back to the very first moments of book printing and bear incredible cultural meaning.

Digitization of Libraries focused on Spanish Literature and Latin American History

Recently the University of Texas at Austin agreed to allow Google to mass digitize more than a million books in its libraries. Significantly, this includes the University of Texas’ world-renowned Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection which contains many important works from early Latin America history. Other spanish literature collections which Google is progressively including in Google Book Search include those of The National Library of Catalonia, University Complutense of Madrid, and the University of California.

British Library Online Project

In a separate deal, Microsoft has made arrangements with the British Library to mass digitize about 100,000 books. Microsoft scanned about 25 million pages from the British Library during 2006. In May 2008, Microsoft announced it was bringing to a close it’s book search project. To that date Microsoft said it had digitized 750,000 books and indexed 80 million journal articles. Microsoft said that Books and scholarly publications will continue to be integrated into Microsoft Search results, but not through separate indexes.

Universal Digital Library

The Universal Digital Library (UDL) is an initiative by Carnegie Mellon University and a number of UDL partners in China, India, and Egypt to mass digitize human knowledge by capturing all books in digital format and make them freely available over the internet. The Universal Digital Library has a particular focus on digitizing (and storing safely) rare and unique books from around the world. When and if there is a question about a book’s copyright only 15 percent of the book is published online – however the entire book is scanned and archived by the Universal Digital Library.

An initial goal for the Universal Digital Library was the Million Book Digital Library project. The project’s objective was to mass digitize over a million books to demonstrate the feasibility of the Universal Digital Library. This is less than 1% of all books in all languages ever published. (The total number of different titles indexed in OCLC’s WorldCat is about 48 million). The 1 million target was reached in April 2007. By the end of 2007 over 1.5 million books had been digitized. A secondary objective of the Million Book Digital Library project is to provide a test bed that will support other researchers who are working on improved scanning techniques, improved optical character recognition, and improved indexing.

Market Size for Online Book Publishing, Digital Publishing, and eBooks

Most efforts to achieve the mass digitization of libraries are focused on making knowledge and documents widely accessible – particularly where documents are of historic significance.

The commercial market opportunity for sales of digitized books, magazines, and newspapers has recently begun to expand dramatically. Hand-held devices such as Amazon’s Kindle and now the success of the Apple iPad, along with devices from Boarders’ kobo and Motorola Xoom, have made eBook-reading both practicable and pleasurable.

In June 2011, Apple reported that more than 130 million books had been downloaded from their Apple iBookstore (originally an App on iOS devices like the iPad, now part of iTunes), having signed-up major publishers including Harper Collins, Macmillan, Simon & Shuster, Hachette Book Group, Penguin, and Random House.

At present it seems that reading books on laptops and portable book readers is far less appealing to most people than the form factor which the world has used for centuries: printed books. That said, digital publishing is clearly a growing trend, and most print publications also have online editions.

While not the only factor involved, the preference for paper books is currently influencing the market size for online book publishing. Publisher Simon & Schuster reported that its sales of electronic books in 2007 were about $1 million (out of total annual sales of roughly $1 billion), though the company plans to double the size of its catalogue of eBooks during 2008. In 2005 digital copies of books generated sales of just US$12 million. That gave digital publishing a market share of under 0.5%: the book publishing industry achieved sales of US$25 billion in 2005, according to the Association of American Publishers.

Commentary on Mass Digitization of Books, including Copyright issues and legal challenges.

Webcast of conference on the effects of Mass Digitization of books on Libraries at the University of Michigan.

Biocontrol provides been recognised because of its innovation and knowledge already

Biocontrol provides been recognised because of its innovation and knowledge already, recently earning a prestigious Research and Advancement Grant Award from the London Development Agency . First discovered in the first 20th century, bacteriophages, or phages, are occurring viruses that strike and destroy parasites naturally. They are specialised highly, usually attacking only particular strains of an individual species of bacteria. We curently have a product to regulate one type of infection in scientific trials – phages have genuine potential to fight many different antibiotic-resistant attacks. Continue reading

It hampers your confines and mobility you to a couch.

To be able to prevent such problems, shoe inserts are recommended by podiatrists. Corrective orthotics inserts are usually rigid to be able to give a greater stabilizing effect for the feet. The main intention is to prevent problem areas from experiencing pressure. As a total result, they protect against pain and prevent aggravation of the nagging issue. The decoration of insert is set based on the foot condition. Corrective inserts may need to be used either temporarily or completely. Protective orthotics, on the other hand, is softer and even more pliable. It is meant to distribute pressure over the foot and not block or change it. The primary objective is to distribute weight and stop problem areas from experiencing excess pressure evenly. Essentially, a podiatrist diagnoses the precise cause of pain in the foot and helps provide alleviation through a combination of exercises, orthotics and medication. Continue reading

Hundred years for the Cure Research Award&39.

Tomorrow's advanced cancer treatments depend on the research being done right now. There are still many mysteries with regards to hematologic malignancies. That is normally why my wife Aileen and I are a lot more than pleased that through the annual Century bike ride, there is a chance to support innovative scientific exploration in this area. Investigators will have the opportunity to apply for the 'Century for the Cure Research Award' on an annual basis.. Annual Century for the Remedy bike ride supports research about hematologic malignancies The annual Century for the Cure bike ride which has raised more than $1 million since 2005 for research at The Cancer Institute of New Jersey is now allowing for new scientific exploration in the region of hematologic malignancies. Continue reading

Are Bodybuilding Supplements Necessary?

Are Bodybuilding Supplements Necessary? Muscle supplements have grown to be very popular today that the supplements industry will be able to rake in vast amounts of dollars each year. Today, almost everyone who is into the bodybuilding sport invest thousands in muscle supplements in their desire to be stronger and to be able to grow their muscle mass big and fast. The question, however, is certainly whether bodybuilders need muscle supplements to be remembered as bigger and stronger really dosage to reverse gyno . The simplest answer to this question will be ‘No’, because if you understand how our body functions, you would know that the average person can grow his muscle tissue really big if he’d just train hard and eat the proper types of food , without taking muscles supplements even. Continue reading

Which is a lot more than double previous estimates.

Adults with manual careers had higher fracture prices than those working in additional occupations. The life time fracture price among white people, at just under 40 percent, was nearly double that of dark and minority ethnic people at 22 percent. Fractures impose an enormous burden on healthcare systems, state the authors.. Annual bone fracture price almost 4 % and double previous estimates The annual bone fracture rate in England is merely short of 4 percent of the population, which is a lot more than double previous estimates, suggests a report in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. Continue reading

Acute liver failure takes place when cells in the liver die quickly.

Antidotes effective for treating acute liver failing patients in early stages of disease The antidote for acute liver failure caused by acetaminophen poisoning also can treat acute liver failure because of almost every other causes if given before severe injury occurs, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers and their colleagues at 21 various other institutions have found. Acute liver failure takes place when cells in the liver die quickly, resulting in toxins being released into the bloodstream and brain nizagara information . Continue reading

Childrens Motrin causes seven-year-old to go blind and lose 90 % of skin A Plymouth.

Currently, the medication’s label includes an FDA-recommended warning that the medication might lead to ‘a severe allergic reaction’ and that symptoms could consist of hives, facial swelling, rash, and blisters. Only about 300 cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome happen in the U.S. Annually.. Children’s Motrin causes seven-year-old to go blind and lose 90 % of skin A Plymouth, Mass., teen could be awarded as much as $109 million after losing the majority of her pores and skin and her vision carrying out a massive allergic reaction to Children’s Motrin when she was seven years aged. The award against the over-the-counter drug’s manufacturer, Johnson & Johnson, was granted to Samantha Reckis and her family members, reports said, after she experienced a uncommon but potentially fatal side effect from taking the ibuprofen product that caused her to proceed blind and also have 90 % of her epidermis fall off. Continue reading

Experts at the University of Uk Columbia have turned it right into a protein creation factory.

Or, by keeping the S-layer proteins intact and inserting brand-new things within it genetically, they create a very dense screen of useful proteins on the cell surface area and expect to utilize the whole bacterium in a therapeutic software. Related StoriesEGPAF, EJAF start new project to broaden HIV treatment, prevention initiatives for adolescents in AfricaGenvoya authorized as complete routine for HIV treatmentNew initiative released to accelerate seek out effective HIV vaccineBacteria are generally utilized in biotechnology to create useful protein products. If the bacterias secrete the proteins than keep it included within the cell rather, purification costs are significantly lowered. The researchers are suffering from a commercially available package predicated on this technology, which could be specifically useful in developing countries as it can be utilized to manufacture HIV-blocking brokers extremely cheaply and with small specialist experience. Continue reading

Hong Lu and her group

Apparent diffusion coefficient does not reflect cytotoxicedema on uninjured side after TBI It really is currently difficult to treat traumatic brain injury in the clinic. There are abundant neural network connections and humoral regulation mechanisms between your cerebral hemispheres. Hong Lu and her group, Affiliated Haikou Hospital, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, in China performed a study to investigate whether obvious diffusion coefficient measurements can reflect cytotoxic edema on the uninjured aspect using diffusion tensor imaging . They discovered that, on the wounded side, vasogenic edema followed by intracellular edema made an appearance; on the uninjured side, the pathological changes take place later, cytotoxic edema followed by vasogenic edema was visible, but vasogenic edema tended to diminish with time. Continue reading

Cold Hands & Feet Causes Humans are tropical animals.

If the physical body can be cooling off, circulation decreases in the arms, legs, ears, and nasal area so that the rest of the primary body can stay warm. When temps are below freezing, ice may form in these areas with less circulation. Nonfreezing cold accidents are also due to cooling of the skin. In immersion injuries, the bloodstream and nerves vessels are damaged after exposure to cold, wet conditions at or above freezing temps. Pernio is caused by exposure to cold for an extended period of time without freezing or by extremely wet conditions. Raynaud’s phenomenon is an abnormal narrowing of the arteries that constrict with cooling of the fingertips or toes. Cryoglobulins are proteins, which are normally dissolved in the blood, that become solids or gels when cold. Continue reading